World AIDS Day is an annual well being occasion noticed on Dec.1 to lift consciousness about HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The purpose is to deal with probably the most urgent international public well being challenges, which presently has no treatment.
HIV is a virus that assaults the immune system, making an individual extra weak to different infections and illnesses. HIV might progress to AIDS if not handled.
Round 39 million individuals throughout the globe stay with HIV, of which 37.5 million are adults, and 1.5 million are kids.
What are the indicators?
Many individuals develop flu-like signs inside two to 4 weeks of an infection, which could final a number of days to weeks. The sufferers could develop fever, rash and headache. Nevertheless, having these signs doesn’t imply that the particular person has HIV, as a number of sicknesses may cause the identical indicators.
The one strategy to affirm the prognosis is by testing for HIV. If the take a look at outcomes are constructive, the affected person can begin the remedy, relying on their viral load.
Phases of HIV
1. Acute HIV – It’s the initial stage of an infection during which the sufferers could develop indicators of flu. At this stage, the HIV multiplies quickly, assaults and destroys the immune cells and spreads all through the physique. The chance of transmission is excessive at this stage because the viral load within the blood is excessive. Therapy utilizing antiretroviral remedy (ART) is helpful for lowering the viral load.
2. Persistent stage – That is the stage the place the sufferers don’t present any indicators of an infection however the virus continues to multiply within the physique at low ranges. In individuals with out ART remedy, the situation advances to AIDS in round 10 years. Those that are on remedy could keep at this stage for a number of many years. Though the virus continues to be transmissible at this stage, sufferers who preserve an undetectable viral load by ART remedy is not going to cross the virus to an HIV-negative companion by intercourse.
3. AIDS – It’s the closing and most extreme stage of an infection. The sufferers could have a CD4 rely of lower than 200 cells/mm3 and will have sure opportunistic infections – infections that happen extra generally in individuals with weakened immunity. Sufferers have a excessive viral load and may transmit HIV to others very simply. If not handled, sufferers with AIDS usually survive solely about three years.
HIV is often transmitted by unprotected intercourse and the usage of shared needles and gear for drug use. Transmission may happen when physique fluids akin to blood, semen, pre-seminal fluids, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids and breast milk are available in contact with a mucous membrane or broken tissue or get instantly injected into the bloodstream.
To cut back the chance of transmission and forestall contracting the virus, listed below are some steps:
- Get examined for HIV.
- Select much less dangerous sexual behaviors. Know that the HIV can unfold by anal or vaginal intercourse and not using a condom.
- Restrict sexual companions. The extra companions an individual has, the chance of STDs (sexually transmitted illnesses) will increase, which raises the chance of contracting HIV.
- Use condoms whereas having intercourse.
- Get examined for STDs and take remedy.
- Seek the advice of with a well being skilled and talk about the potential for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) – a prevention choice focused to assist individuals who wouldn’t have HIV however are at excessive threat of getting the an infection.